Reflection paper/ psychology

Write a reflection paper about what you have learned (from power point attached which is topic from psychology chapter “Motivation and Motion”) and that you have applied to your personal life. It is not a summary of the chapters. Please apply something from life.

It should be a word document with 3,000 words.
Motivation and emotion

Lecture Slides

Kristin C. Flora Ph.D., Franklin College

Meet Ivonne: United States paralympian

Ivonne has been a fighter all her life.

At age 2, doctors removed both eyes to stop the spread of an aggressive cancer.

After graduating college, Ivonne took up running, turning herself into a world-class runner and triathlete.

In Rio, Ivonne earned 6th place in the 1500 meter run.

Other notable accomplishments include speaking 4 languages, climbing mountains, and earning a graduate degree in business.

Motivation: Part 1

Motivation: a stimulus that can direct behavior, thinking, and feeling




Motivation: Part 2

Motivation and Learning Theory

Operant Conditioning

Positive reinforcers: stimuli that, when added, increase the likelihood of future behavior

Negative reinforcers: stimuli that, when taken away, increase the likelihood of future behavior

Incentive: an association established between a behavior and its consequences, which then motivates that behavior

Motivation: Part 3

Intrinsic motivation

The drive or urge to continue a behavior because of internal reinforcers

Examples: personal satisfaction, interest, mastery

Extrinsic motivation

The drive or urge to continue a behavior because of external reinforcers

Examples: money, grades, food, traffic tickets

Can undermine intrinsic motivation when we reward an activity with external reinforcers

Put your heads together 9.1

Imagine you are a psychology instructor and your goal is to motivate students to perform better on exams. Team up and discuss

extrinsic motivation strategies you could implement, and

ways to encourage intrinsic motivation.

Which would be more effective in the long term?


Theories of motivation: Part 1

Instinct Theory

Instincts: complex behaviors that are fixed, unlearned, and consistent within a species

Early theorists, influenced by Darwin, proposed that human behavior is motivated by various instincts.

Little evidence to support this theory

Evolutionary perspective suggests evolutionary forces influence behavior.

Example: fear of heights may have evolved to protect us from danger

Theories of motivation: Part 2

Drive-Reduction Theory

Homeostasis: the tendency for bodies to maintain constant states through internal controls

Homeostasis is the basis for motivation.

Behaviors are driven by the process of fulfilling basic needs.

If a need is not fulfilled, it creates a drive, or a state of tension that motivates behavior to restore equilibrium.

Drive-reduction theory

Theories of motivation: Part 3

Arousal Theory

Humans (and perhaps other primates) seek an optimal level of arousal, as not all motivation stems from physical needs.

Arousal can be a product of anxiety, surprise, excitement, interest, fear, and many other emotions.

Some people are sensation seekers.

High heritability of this trait (58%–67%)

Can decrease later in adolescence

Not all bad — has been linked to greater tolerance of stressful events

Arousal theory

Theories of motivation: Part 4

Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

A continuum of needs that are universal and ordered in terms of the strength of their associated drives

Physiological needs

Safety needs

Love and belongingness needs

Esteem needs



Ivonne (center) with her family. Even in nursery school, Ivonne appeared to be motivated by esteem needs. She was self-directed, confident, and commanded respect from others.

Hierarchy of needs

Theories of motivation: Part 5

Maslow’s Hierarchy: Exceptions to the Rule

Sequence not set in stone

Physiological needs sometimes abandoned to meet self-actualization needs

Safety needs may be relegated to pursue self-transcendence needs

Breaking Fast Iraqi families gather for Iftar, the evening meal eaten after the daytime fast. During the holy month of Ramadan, Muslims deny themselves food, water, tobacco, and chewing gum from dawn to dusk. “As defined in the Qur’an, fasting is a strict practice of deep personal worship in which Muslims seek the highest level of awareness of the Divine” (Ilias, Tayeh, & Pachoundakis, 2016, p. 147). Here, basic needs (food and water) are put on hold for something more transcendent.

Theories of motivation: Part 6

Self-Determination Theory (Deci & Ryan)

Humans are born with three universal needs, which are always driving us in the direction of growth and optimal functioning.

Need for competence: reaching goals through mastery of day-to-day responsibilities

Need for relatedness: creating meaningful and lasting relationships

Need for autonomy: managing behavior to reach personal goals

Theories of motivation: Part 7

Need for Achievement (Murray)

One of 20 fundamental needs

A drive to reach attainable and challenging goals, especially in the face of competition

We seek situations that provide opportunities for satisfying this need

Need for Power (McClelland et al.)

A drive to control or influence others

Enjoy dominating others but hate being dominated

Put your heads together 9.2

Pick a media report describing a famous person’s behavior.

Apply different theories of motivation to explain their actions.


Social media and psychology

Network Needs

Social media can either intensify or reduce feelings of loneliness, depending on the platforms that are used and activity level.

Image-based platforms linked to reduced loneliness

Activity level

Active Facebook use strengthens relationships

Passive Facebook use diminishes positive emotion

Sexuality: Part 1

“Sex may be studied as a purely physiological need,” according to Maslow (1943), “[but] ordinarily sexual behavior is multi-determined” (p. 381).

Sexuality: a dimension of human nature encompassing everything that makes us sexual beings: sexual activities, attitudes, and behaviors

William Masters and Virginia Johnson are the pioneers of sexuality research.

Sexuality: Part 2

Human sexual response cycle

10,000 distinct sexual responses of 312 male and 382 female participants (Masters & Johnson, 1966)

Men and women follow a similar cycle; duration differs across individuals.





Men enter a refractory period where they are unable to obtain another orgasm.

Women do not enter a refractory period and can have multiple orgasms.

Masters and Johnson’s Human Sexual Response Cycle

Sexuality: Part 3

Sexual orientation: a person’s enduring sexual attraction to individuals of the same sex, opposite sex, or both sexes




Sexual orientation can also be described as a continuum that includes many dimensions of our sexuality, including attraction, desire, and emotions.

Sexuality: Part 4

How does sexual orientation develop?


Twin studies and family pedigree studies suggest there is a genetic component for sexual orientation.

Same-sex sexual behavior heritability rates are lower for women than men.

Prenatal influences

Early in utero exposure to high levels of androgens may be associated with homosexual orientation in women.

Fraternal birth order effect — having older brothers — is associated with homosexuality in men.

Maternal immunity hypothesis

Sexuality: Part 5

The role of nurture in sexual orientation

From a continuum perspective, many people fall in between strictly heterosexual and strictly homosexual.

Because we live in a homomisic society, most people in the middle will be pushed toward a heterosexual orientation.

Children raised in same-sex households are not disadvantaged; in fact, one study found that teens raised by lesbian mothers tended to score higher on measures of self-esteem and had fewer behavioral problems.

Sexuality: Part 6

A history of unfair treatment

Targets of stereotyping, prejudice, and discrimination

Continue to be targeted today with policies to exclude transgender individuals from military service and failure to be protected by federal law from workplace discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation


What is your opinion on these recent changes to policy?

Sexuality: Part 7

Gathering sex data

Alfred Kinsey and colleagues were among the first to try to scientifically and objectively examine the sexual behavior of Americans.

Key findings: both men and women masturbated, and participants had experiences with premarital sex, adultery, and sexual activity with someone of the same sex

Limitations included a lack of a representative sample

Sexuality: Part 8
Sexual Activity Average Frequency in Prior Month for Men Average Frequency in Prior Month for Women
Penile–vaginal intercourse 5.2 4.8
Oral sex 2.3 1.9
Anal sex 0.10 0.08
Masturbation 4.5 1.5


How do men and women differ in sexual behavior?

Sexuality: Part 9

Think Critically: Sext You Later

Sexting: text messages with sexually explicit words or images

20% of high school students have used their cell phones to share sexual pictures of themselves

Twice as many have received images from others

Risks associated with sexting

Young people who sext are more likely to have sex and take sexual risks

When sexting is between two consenting adults, it may be completely harmless (provided no infidelity is involved).

Problems with sex: Part 1

Sexual dysfunction: a significant disturbance in the ability to respond sexually or to gain pleasure from sex

43% of women and 31% of men suffer from some sort of sexual dysfunction (Laumann, Paik, & Rosen, 1999)

Can be temporary or long-term





Problems with sex: Part 2

Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs): diseases or illnesses transmitted through sexual activity

Bacterial — can be treated with antibiotics

Examples: syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia

Viral — no cure, only…

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